In Their Own Words: Reading and Understanding through Paraphrasing
Metro Spring 2015 Regional - Vicki Estrem & Pam Ampferer
Effective paraphrasing builds students' reading and writing skills and boosts comprehension of complex texts. This valuable strategy can be used across all content areas with students of various reading levels. Summarized here are materials and techniques for teaching paraphrasing in various ABE contexts, including addressing paraphrasing for the GED 2014 Extended Response. (This session was geared toward teachers of intermediate to advanced readers and to both native and non-native speakers of English.)
Khan Academy - Sentence Writing
Khan Academy or KA is a FREE online learning platform used by students from around the world. Recently, Grammar was added as a topic under Arts & humanities. KA’s grammarians, David and Paige, present engaging and entertaining video tutorials and practice exercises on sentence writing (under Syntax: sentences and clauses): sentences, clauses, and conventions. The lessons tend to use higher-level vocabulary words or examples; thus, they may be most appropriate for Adult Secondary students…and possibly appropriate for High Intermediate ABE and Advanced ESL.
Note: Because it’s so new, Distance Learning teachers in Minnesota cannot yet recommend it; however, their students’ grammar time will be counted and reported.
Tiered Sentence Combining
According to adult literacy research and practitioner observation, many ABE students tend to overuse short, simple sentences in their writing. Explicit sentence combining instruction can help them write sentences that are longer, more complex or interesting, and varied in structure. Tiered Sentence Combining (TSC), an evidence-based resource developed by MN STARs, provides a starting point that may ultimately improve ABE students' sentence composition, complexity, and comprehension. In addition to Teacher Background and Teacher Information pages, TSC:
- Presents 6 scaffolded strategies for combining short sentences with the common connectors and, but, or, so.
Recommends an explicit and integrated instructional process of READ-WRITE-READ.
- Offers 16 Student Exercises using Tier One (concrete, everyday, basic) words and 32 exercises using Tier 2 (abstract, sophisticated, academic) words.
- Provides an Answer Key for each set of Student Exercises.
- Includes a variety of Minnesota practitioner sentence topics and ideas for use in ABE, ESL, or GED classrooms.
- Aligns with College and Career Readiness Standards, Language CCR Anchor 1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
The most recent version of TSC (August 2014) is posted here as a Word file; teachers are highly encouraged to make any changes in formatting or wording that will benefit students' sentence combining readiness or success. They are also respectfully requested to contact Marn Frank with any corrections or comments.