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Additional Fluency Resources

These resources (found in the Comprehension section of this library) are also useful for Fluency instruction:

  • Britannica School Elementary offers non-fiction articles at Reading Levels 1-2 and related images, videos, maps, and learning games.
  • Center for Adult Literacy Text Library offers over 1600 “easier, medium, or harder” texts, on a range of topics, at grade levels 3.0-7.9
  • The Change Agent is a social justice newspaper that includes student-written articles (leveled according to readability), discussion topics, and lesson plans.
  • The Times in Plain English contains free, leveled “Plain English Version” articles about current world and national news or events.

These resources (found in the ESL library) are also useful for Fluency instruction:

  • ESL Literacy Readers offers 40 theme-based stories, a learner page, and a teacher’s guide with ideas for reading activities and extensions.
  • ESL Yes! offers 1600 stories intended for Beginning and Intermediate level ESL students, supplemented with audios and various kinds of exercises.

CCRS Reading Foundational Skills – Fluency

Are you wondering if the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) address beginning literacy skills, including fluency? Check out these resources posted in the CCR Standards library under CCRS General Resources > English Learners & CCRS.

Fluency – Challenges & Possible Solutions

Common fluency instructional challenges and solutions developed by Minnesota STARs and Trainers.

Fluency Instruction for STAR/EBRI Volunteers

This handout describes what STAR/EBRI volunteers need to know about evidence-based and explicit fluency instruction. It also clarifies how they can improve – but not necessarily perfect – students’ oral reading fluency of paragraphs, passages, articles, or books.

Fluency Techniques for STAR/EBRI Volunteers

This handout for STAR/EBRI volunteers describes three fluency techniques considered most effective for adult readers. All interweave the steps of explicit instruction for guided oral readings of paragraphs, passages, articles, or books.

Fluency: Research and Teaching Strategies

Research Digest No. 6 from the Appalachian State University defines fluency, provides suggestions for assessment and instruction, and lists additional resources and references.

Is Fluent, Expressive Reading Important for High School Readers?

This article examines the relationship between oral prosody (phrasing and expression) and silent reading comprehension for secondary readers. The study recommends teacher modeling and whole-class choral reading of passages from literature, social studies, and science content materials.

New Evidence for Fluency Instruction

This summary reports on findings and conclusions from two recent studies about relationships between fluency and comprehension in adult readers.

Newsela – Fluency

From the Newsela homepage, teachers can sign up for FREE and unlimited access to printable news articles, about the same topic but at 5 different lexile scores, and all aligned with CCRS reading anchors. This resource is extremely helpful for fluency instruction!

Reading Skills for Healthcare Workers – Fluency

This website provides 175 CNA (certified nursing assistant) and general healthcare passages and audios for adult readers at grade levels 5.5 to 8.5 (Intermediate level). All are CCRS aligned and include pre-reading questions, definitions of healthcare or high-frequency vocabulary, and text-dependent questions.

Reading Skills for Today’s Adults – Fluency

This website is a source of passages (Levels 0.7 to 8.0) and audios intended “to help adults become better readers and more informed consumers, parents, employees, citizens and community members.” It is useful for Beginning and Intermediate level students.

Stellar Fluency Ideas

These “stellar” ideas for fluency instruction were collected from participating MN STAR administrators and teachers during 2009-2012.